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Digital Compositing For Film And Video, 2nd Edition

Steve Wright

Digital Compositing for Film and Video is a hands-on, how-to guide that addresses the problems and difficult choices faced by the professional compositor in real-life situations. This book presents you with tips, tricks and techniques for dealing with the badly shot elements, color artifacts, and mismatched lighting that bedevil compositors. Included in this book is: in-depth, practical methods for bluescreen matte extraction, despill operations, compositing operations, and color correction_the "meat and potatoes" of all digital effects. Written in a completely software independent style, it is totally applicable to any brand of compositing software.

The second edition contains many important additions:


printed in full color with over 400 color photos and illustrations

companion DVD with 3.7 gigabytes of test images, including hard to get HiDef video and feature film scans

new section on working with HiDef video

new section on digital intermediate, the feature film finishing process of today

more Adobe Photoshop blending modes and procedures

new material that reveals the add-mix composite, light wrap, slot gags, and how to defeat banding problems

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 _ Introduction

1.1 How this book is organized
1.2 Tool conventions
1.2.1 The slice tool
1.2.1 Flowgraphs
1.2.3 The color curve

Chapter 2 _ Pulling Mattes

2.1 Luma-key mattes
2.1.1 how luma-key mattes work
2.1.2 making your own luminance image
2.1.2.1 variations on the luminance equation
2.1.2.2 non-luminance monochrome images
2.1.3 making your own luma-key mattes
2.2 chroma-key mattes
2.2.1 how chroma-key mattes work
2.2.2 making your own chroma-keyer
2.3 difference mattes
2.3.1 how difference mattes work
2.3.2 making your own difference matte
2.4 bump maps
2.5 keyes
2.6 color difference mattes
2.6.1 extracting the color difference matte
2.6.1.1 the theory
2.6.1.2 pulling the raw matte
2.6.1.3 a simplified example
2.6.1.4 a slightly more realistic case
2.6.1.5 and now, the real world
2.6.1.6 matte edge penetration
2.6.2 scaling the raw matte
2.6.3 refining the color difference matte
2.6.3.1 preprocessing the greenscreen
2.6.3.2 local suppression
2.6.3.3 channel clamping
2.6.3.4 channel shifting
2.6.3.5 degraining
2.6.4 poorly lit greenscreens
2.6.4.1 too bright
2.6.4.2 too dark
2.6.4.3 impure greenscreens
2.6.4.4 uneven lighting
2.6.5 screen leveling
2.6.6 screen correction
2.6.6.1 screen correction with Ultimatte
2.6.6.2 doing your own screen correction

Chapter 3 _ Refining Mattes

3.1 the matte monitor
3.2 garbage matting
3.3 filtering the matte
3.3.1 noise suppression
3.3.2 softer edges
3.3.3 controlling the blur operation
3.3.3.1 the blur radius
3.3.3.2 the blur percentage
3.3.4 blurring selected regions
3.4 adjusting the matte size
3.4.1 shrinking the matte with blur and scale
3.4.2 expanding the matte with blur and scale

Chapter 4 _ Despill

4.1 the despill operation
4.2 despill artifacts
4.3 despill algorithms
4.3.1 green limited by red
4.3.1.1 implementing the algorithm
4.3.1.2 the spillmap
4.3.2 green limited by blue
4.3.3 green by averaged of red and blue
4.3.4 green limited by other formulations
4.4 refining the despill
4.4.1 channel shifting
4.4.2 spillmap scaling
4.4.3 mixing despills
4.4.4 matting despills together
4.4.5 blue degraining
4.5 unspill operations
4.5.1 how to set it up
4.5.2 grading the backing color

Chapter 5 _ The Composite

5.1 the compositing operation
5.1.1 inside the compositing operation
5.1.1.1 scaling the foreground layer
5.1.1.2 scaling the background layer
5.1.1.3 compositing the foreground and background
5.1.2 making a semi-transparent composite
5.2 the processed foreground method
5.2.1 creating the processed foreground
5.2.2 compositing the processed foreground
5.2.3 some issues
5.2.3.1 residual grain
5.2.3.2 uneven backing colors

5.3 add-mix compositing
5.3.1 when to use it
5.3.2 how it works
5.3.3 how to control it

5.3 refining the composite
5.3.1 edge blending
5.3.2 soft comp/hard comp
5.3.3 layer integration
5.4 compositing CGI images
5.4.1 the premultiplied CGI image
5.4.2 the unpremultiplied CGI image
5.4.2.1 the zero black alpha pixel problem
5.4.2.2 the partially transparent alpha pixel problem
5.4.3 adjusting the composite for unpremultiplied CGI
5.4.4 unpremultiply highlight clipping
5.4.4.1 what goes wrong
5.4.4.2 how to fix it
5.5 other ways to blend images
5.5.1 the screen operation
5.5.1.1 (no label _ ooops)
5.5.1.2 adjusting the appearance
5.5.2 the weighted screen operation
5.5.3 multiply
5.5.3.1 adjusting the appearance
5.5.4 maximum
5.5.5 minimum

5.6 Adobe Photoshop blending modes
5.6.1 overlay
5.6.2 softlight
5.6.3 hardlight
5.6.4 vividlight
5.6.5 linearlight
5.7 _slot gagsī
5.7.1 when to use them
5.7.2 how to make them
5.7.3 how to animate them



Chapter 6 _ Lighting

6.1 the color of nature
6.1.1 visible light
6.1.2 the color of lights
6.1.2.1 color temperature
6.1.3 the effects of filters
6.1.4 the color of objects
6.2 the behavior of light
6.2.1 the inverse square law
6.2.2 diffuse reflections
6.2.3 specular reflections
6.2.4 interactive lighting
6.2.5 scattering
6.3 matching the lightspace
6.3.1 brightness and contrast
6.3.1.1 matching the black and white points
6.3.1.1.1 increasing the contrast with the _Sī curve
6.3.1.1.2 when you don_t have good black and white points
6.3.1.2 matching the midtone
6.3.1.2.1 gamma slamming
6.3.1.3 histogram matching
6.3.2 color matching
6.3.2.1 grayscale balancing
6.3.2.2 matching the fleshtones
6.3.2.3 the _constant greenī method of color correction
6.3.2.4 daylight
6.3.2.5 specular highlights
6.3.3 light direction
6.3.4 quality of light sources
6.3.4.1 creating softer lighting
6.3.4.2 creating harsher lighting
6.3.5 interactive lighting
6.3.6 shadows
6.3.6.1 edge characteristics
6.3.6.2 density
6.3.6.3 color
6.3.6.4 faux shadows
6.3.7 atmospheric haze

6.3.8 non-linear color correction masks
6.3.8.1 edge control
6.3.8.2 large area control
6.3.9 how to add a glow

6.3.8 a checklist

Chapter 7 _ Camera

7.1 matching the focus
7.1.1 using a blur for defocus
7.1.2 how to simulate a defocus
7.1.3 focus pull
7.1.4 sharpening
7.1.4.1 sharpening kernels
7.1.4.2 unsharp masks
7.1.4.3 making your own unsharp mask
7.2 depth of field
7.3 lens flare
7.3.1 creating and applying lens flares
7.3.2 animating lens flares
7.3.3 channel swapping
7.4 veiling glare
7.5 grain
7.5.1 the nature of grain
7.5.2 making grain
7.5.2.1 generating the grain
7.5.2.2 applying the grain
7.5.3 matching the grain of two film layers
7.5.4 adding grain to grainless layers

7.5.5 making a grainless plate with frame averaging

7.6 a checklist

Chapter 8 _ Action

8.1 geometric transformations
8.1.1 2D transformations
8.1.1.1 translation
8.1.1.1.1 floating point versus integer
8.1.1.1.2 source and destination movement
8.1.1.2 rotation
8.1.1.2.1 pivot points
8.1.1.3 scaling and zooming
8.1.1.3.1 pivot points
8.1.1.4 skew
8.1.1.5 corner pinning
8.1.2 3D transformations
8.1.3 filtering
8.1.3.1 the effects of filtering
8.1.3.1.1 twinkling starfields
8.1.3.2 choosing a filter
8.1.4 lining up images
8.1.4.1 offset mask lineup display
8.1.4.2 edge detection lineup display
8.1.4.3 the pivot point lineup procedure
8.2 motion tracking
8.2.1 the tracking operation
8.2.1.1 selecting good tracking targets
8.2.1.2 enable/disable tracking points
8.2.1.3 keep shape and follow shape
8.2.2 applying the tracking data
8.2.3 stabilizing
8.2.3.1 the repo problem
8.2.3.2 smoothing
8.2.4 3D motion tracking
8.2.5 tips and techniques
8.2.5.1 tracking preview
8.2.5.2 low-resolution/high-resolution tracking
8.2.5.3 preprocessing the shot
8.2.5.3.1 increase the contrast
8.2.5.3.2 degrain
8.2.5.3.3 lens distortion
8.2.5.4 point stacking
8.2.5.5 difference tracking
8.3 warps and morphs
8.3.1 warps
8.3.2 morphs
8.3.3 tips and techniques

Chapter 9 _ Gamma

9.1 what is gamma
9.2 the effects of gamma changes on images
9.3 the 3 gammas of a display system
9.3.1 monitor gamma
9.3.2 monitor gamma correction
9.3.2.1 the monitor LUT
9.3.3 the end-to-end gamma
9.4 measuring your monitor gamma
9.5 the dim surround effect
9.5.1 dim surround for TV
9.5.2 dark surround for film
9.6 the gamma of video
9.7 the gamma of film
9.8 gamma and the Mac
9.9 monitor display temperature
9.9.1 black body radiation
9.9.2 your monitor temperature

Chapter 10 _ Video

10.1 getting video to and from a workstation
10.2 how video works
10.2.1 frame construction
10.2.1.1 the scanning raster
10.2.1.2 interlaced fields
10.2.1.3 effects on motion blur
10.2.1.4 field dominance
120.2.1.5 color resolution
10.2.2 NTSC and PAL differences
10.2.2.1 frame rate
10.2.2.1.1 NTSC
10.2.2.1.2 drop frame time code
10.2.2.1.3 PAL
10.2.2.2 image size
10.2.2.2.1 NTSC
10.2.2.2.2 PAL
10.2.2.3 pixel aspect ratio
10.2.2.3.1 NTSC
10.2.2.3.2 PAL
10.2.2.4 country standards
10.2.3 types of video
10.2.3.1 component video
10.2.3.2 composite video
10.2.3.3 digital and analogue
10.2.3.4 interlaced vs progressive scan
10.2.4 video formats
10.2.4.1 the all-digital formats
10.2.4.2 Sony
10.2.4.3 consumer/commercial
10.2.4.4 HiDef (delete)

10.3 HiDef Video
10.3.1 image sizes
10.3.2 scan modes
10.3.2.1 progressive
10.3.2.2 interlaced
10.3.2.3 progressive segmented frame
10.3.3 video tape formats
10.3.3.1 D5
10.3.3.2 Hdcam
10.3.3.3 DVCPro
10.4 Video compression
10.4.1 sampling schemes
10.4.2 data compression

10.3 telecine
10.3.1 the 3:2 pulldown
10.3.2 pin registration
10.3.3 recommendations to the client
10.4 working with video
10.4.1 de-interlacing
10.4.1.1 scan line interpolation
10.4.1.2 field averaging
10.4.1.3 field separation
10.4.2 the 3:2 pullup
10.4.3 non-square pixels
10.4.3.1 manipulating an existing video image
10.4.3.2 creating a new image for video
10.4.3.3 PAL pixels
10.4.4 interlace flicker
10.5 working with video in a film job
10.5.1 best video formats
10.5.2 video mastered on video
10.5.3 video mastered on film
10.5.4 gamma correction
10.5.5 frame size and aspect ratio
10.5.6 cropping non-square pixel frames
10.6 working with film in a video job
10.7 working with CGI in a video job

Chapter 11 _ Film

11.1 terms and definitions
11.1.1 conversions
11.1.2 apertures
11.1.3 composition
11.1.4 aspect ratio
11.1.5 image resolutions
11.2 film formats
11.2.1 full aperture
11.2.1.1 super 35
11.2.1.2 common top and common center
11.2.2 academy aperture
11.2.3 cinemascope
11.2.3.1 working with Cscope
11.2.3.2 reformatting other formats to Cscope
11.2.4 vistavision
11.25 65/70mm
11.26 IMAX
11.3 film scanners
11.4 film recorders
11.4.1 how film recorders work
11.4.2 comparison of laser vs crt film recorders
11.4.3 calibrating the workstation to the film recorder
11.4.3.1 dark surround
11.4.3.2 contrast ratio
11.4.3.3 primary colors
11.4.3.4 film layer effects
11.4.3.5 monitor calibration

Chapter 12 _ Log vs. Linear

12.1 dynamic range in the real world
12.2 the behavior of film
12.2.1 film response curves
12.2.2 exposure
12.2.3 the balloon story
12.2.4 meanwhile, back at the film_
12.2.5 opacity
12.3 representing film data in log format
12.3.1 the three film zones
12.3.2 the three reference points
12.3.3 over and under exposure
12.4 digitizing film
12.4.1 linear data problems
12.4.1.1 banding
12.4.1.2 data inflation
12.4.1.3 limited dynamic range
12.4.2 log data virtues
12.4.2.1 banding
12.4.2.2 full dynamic range
12.4.2.3 data efficiency
12.4.2.4 conclusion

12.5 bit depth
12.5.1 affect on images
12.5.2 changing bit depth
12.5.3 coping with low bit depth
12.5.3.1 eliminating banding
12.5.3.2 the moray mask
12.6 issues of gamut




Chapter 13 _ Working with log images

13.1 converting Cineon log images
13.1.1 log to linear conversions
13.1.1.1 the conversion parameters
13.1.1.1.1 the white reference
13.1.1.1.2 the black reference
13.1.1.1.3 display gamma
13.1.1.2 customizing the conversion parameters
13.1.1.3 soft clip
13.1.2 linear to log conversions
13.1.2.1 the conversion parameters
13.1.2.1.1 the white reference
13.1.2.1.2 the black reference
13.1.2.1.3 display gamma
13.2 working with Cineon log images
13.2.1 viewing cineon log images
13.2.2 color correcting
13.2.3 compositing log images
13.2.3.1 converting log to linear
13.2.3.2 the compositing operation
13.2.3.3 converting back to log
13.2.3.4 color correction
13.2.3.5 transparency
13.2.4 compositing a linear image with log images
13.2.5 the screen operation
13.2.5.1 screening a linear image with a log image
13.2.5.2 the weighted screen
13.2.6 matte paintings
13.2.6.1 tips and techniques
13.2.7 CGI
13.2.7.1 rendering
13.2.7.2 compositing
13.2.8 transformations and blur operations

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Digital Compositing For Film And Video, 2nd Edition
Publisher: Focal Press
Pages: 472
ISBN: 978-0-240-80760-7

 

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