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Timing for Animation, 2nd Edition

denotes new material

Foreword by John Lasseter

new preface
Preface to 1981 edition
What is good timing?
The storyboard new illustration needed

Traditional hand drawn storyboards

Digital storyboarding in 2d

Digital storyboarding in 3d

The use of After-effects
The Responsibility of the director (rewrite)
The basic unit of time in animation (new illustration)

Timing for hand-drawn film

Timing for overseas production

Timing for digital production

Motion or Performance Capture
Animation and properties of matter
Movement and Caricature (new illustration)
Cause and effect
Newton's laws of motion
Object's thrown through the air
Timing of inanimate objects
Force transmitted through a flexible joint
Force transmitted through jointed limbs
Spacing of drawings (some additional rewrite to take Digital into account - new illustration needed)
Timing a slow action
Tiiming fast action new illustration needed
getting into and out of holds
(some rewrite - new illustration)
Single frames or double frames?
How long to hold?
Follow through
Overlapping action new illustration needed
Timing an oscillating movement
Timing to suggest weight and force new illustration needed
Timing to suggest force: repeat action
Character reaction and takes
Timing to give feeling of size new illustration needed (
New Japanese Anime examples)
The effects of friction, air resistance and wind
Timing cycles

Scenes with multiple characters

A word about Massive
Effects animation:

2D Hand drawn effects: flames and smoke

3D Digital Effects
repeat movements of inanimate objects (new illustration)
Timing a walk
Types of walk
Spacing of drawings in perspective animation
Timing animals' movements
Bird flight

Speed lines, and motion blur new illustration needed

Snap Principle: Accentuating movement, (
some rewriting, new illustration)
Strobing fast run cycles (new illustration)
Characterisation (new illustration)
The use of timing to suggest mood (new illustration)
Synchronising animation to speech , (
some rewriting, new illustration)
Timing and music

Camera movements: Traditional

Camera Movements: Digital

Edting for different animated media

Feature films


Downloads and short form media games

Conclusions: Traditional skills and Future technological development.
(Drop the Peter Foldes material. It looks thrown in and really dates the book.)


Price: $29.95
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Timing for Animation, 2nd Edition
Publisher: Focal Press
Pages: 176
ISBN: 978-0-240-52160-2


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