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Color and Mastering for Digital Cinema

Charles S. Swartz

Color and Mastering for Digital Cinema explores the implications for motion picture post production processes and changes required to the supporting equipment and software. While a new concept to the motion picture community, the selection of the wide gamut, output—referred XYZ color space for digital cinema distribution is based on decades of color science and experience in other industries. The rationale for choosing XYZ and the other color encoding parameters is explained and the book also provides a full case study of the development of DLP Cinema_ projectors by Texas Instruments. Finally, this book explores how the XYZ color encoding concept can be extended to support enhanced display technologies in the future.


CONTENTS

Objectives

  • Universal distribution master

  • Based on open standards

  • Device Independent

  • Extensible as technology advances

  • Compatible with today_s film distribution

  • Screen luminance 14 ft L

  • White point 0.314 0.351 based on Xenon practice


Color Space

  • Options considered

  • Why XYZ was chosen

  • Explanation of CIE color and x y diagrams

  • Image state — output referred


Transfer Function

  • Why gamma 2.6

  • Why 12 bits

  • Contrast Sensitivity test

  • Full range

  • Normalization to support other white points


Reference Projector and Environment

  • ReferenceProjector

  • Environment

  • Calibration

  • Projector Measurements

Digital Intermediate Process
  • Film and digital raw inputs

  • Film centric workflow — printing density

  • Print Film Emulation in reference display

  • Color Transforms to XYZ

  • Impact on color correctors and other equipment or software

  • Output referred encoding

  • Metadata on reference projector


Color Transformations

  • ICT in JPEG 2000

  • Color transform to RGB in the projector

  • Color calibration in—situ

  • Gamut mapping in the projector

  • Nature's tone mapping


DLP Cinema - a case study

  • How DLP technology works

  • Initial industry demonstrations

  • Responding to creative requests

  • Expansion of color gamut

  • P7v2 to expedite film matching

  • Color calibration in—situ

  • 3D LUT for gamut mapping

  • 3D LUT for film emulation

  • Expansion of contrast ratio

  • Cinelink_ link encryption

  • Cinecanvas_ subtitles


Digital 3D Presentation

  • Screen luminance requirement

  • Impact on color appearance

  • Dual link 4:2:2 interface

  • Various presentation options

  • Dual projector; passive polarizers

  • Single projector; active glasses

  • Single projector with Z-screen; passive glasses

  • Infitec color filters


The Future

  • Impact of wider gamut light sources

  • Gamut mapping requirements

  • Impact of digital cameras

  • 48 FPS for enhanced motion

  • Will film distribution be phased out

  • Digital cinema centric workflow

  • Color Appearance Modeling

  • Auto color transforms for home video and other outputs


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Color and Mastering for Digital Cinema
Publisher: Focal Press
Pages: 179
ISBN: 0-240-80874-6

 

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